Only one life, 'twill soon be past, only what’s done for Christ will last. C.T. Studd
We live in a unique galaxy and location in the universe and it’s not a coincidence. Just imagine how many essential conditions are required and must occur collectively in order to support life here on Earth. If any one of these conditions (parameters) are a small fraction “out of range” or didn’t occur, life on Earth could not exist. For example, the percentage of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere or the precession in the Earth’s rotational tilt on its axis. The following probability estimate demonstrates life on Earth could not have happen by random chance but must have involved divine intervention.
A "list of parameters" is located at the very bottom of the page naming 322 parameters and the probability for attaining the necessary characteristics is in the range for a life supporting body. This number has grown to 676 parameters from new discoveries (see section Creation Events). To better understand the magnitude of the numbers below we've provided a couple of basic examples:
(A) 10^5 = 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 100,000
(B) 10^(-5) = 10 ÷ 10 ÷ 10 ÷ 10 ÷ 10 = .00001
Probability for occurrence of all 322 parameters ≈ 10^(-388)
Dependency factors estimate ≈ 10^(96)
longevity requirements estimate ≈ 10^(-12)
Include dependency factors: -388+96-12 = -304
Probability for occurrence of all 322 parameters = 10^(-304)
Maximum possible number of life support bodies in universe = 10^22
Thus, there is less than one chance in 10^282 (million trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion) that even one such life-supporting body would occur anywhere in the universe without invoking divine miracles.
Below we examine one of these characteristics in great detail to display that life could not have been random.
Ph.D. in Astronomy, University of Toronto, B.S. Physics, University of British Columbia
All the references in "Fine-Tuning of Physical Life Support Body"
Pasadena, CA: Reasons To Believe, 2002
The anthropic principle, also known as the "observation selection effect", is the hypothesis, first proposed in 1957 by Robert Dicke, an American astronomer physicist and atheist, that the range of possible observations that we could make about the universe is limited by the fact that observations could only happen in a universe capable of developing intelligent life in the first place. Anthropic reasoning is often used to deal with the notion that the universe seems to be finely tuned for the existence of life.
At the end of each section, ask yourself the following:
a. "Do you believe all these events occurred randomly or they involve divine intervention?"
b. "What are the odds that all these things just happened by chance?"
"Atheism is so senseless. When I look at the solar system, I see the earth at the right distance from the sun to receive the proper amounts of heat and light. This did not happen by chance."
― Sir Isaac Newton
There are tens of thousands of clusters of galaxies in our universe. We happen to live in a cluster of Galaxies which is one of the prerequisite for a life-supporting body (the little dot to the left is earth). In order for life to exist a galaxy like our Milky Way it must meet ALL of the following requirements. If any one of them is absent or not within life supporting parameters, life cannot exist.
There are 13 known planetary habitable zones. For a planet to be habitable, it must simultaneously reside in all 13 know planetary habitable zones.
A list below includes 13 planetary habitable zones that have been discovered as of July 2022. In order for life to exist, they all must exist within certain parameters and the liquid water and ultraviolet zones must overlap. If we just take the first three habitable zones (liquid water, ultraviolet & photosynthetic), of the 5,000 planets we've discovered outside our solar system, how many planets reside in all three habitual zones?... zero.
Unless God supernaturally intervenes like He did on Earth with habitable zones to support life, not even the primitive microbial life can possibly exist beyond Earth. Each year scientist discover one or more new habitable zone. Life can't exist without out all the habitable zones existing.
Habitual Zones: (1) liquid water (temperature), (2) ultraviolet light, (3) photosynthetic, (4) tropospheric ozone, (5) planet rotation rate, (6) planet rotation axis tilt, (7) tidal, (8) astrosphere, (9) atmospheric electric field, (10) Milankovitch cycles, (11) carbon dioxide (12) carbon monoxide (13) coupled planet-moon magnetosphere
The Drake equation is a probabilistic argument used to estimate the number of active, communicative extraterrestrial civilizations in the Milky Way Galaxy. The equation was formulated in 1961 by Frank Drake, not for purposes of quantifying the number of civilizations, but as a way to stimulate scientific dialogue at the first scientific meeting on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). The terms are defined as follows:
N = R* x fp x ne x fl x fi x fc x L
N : The number of civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy whose electromagnetic emissions are detectable.
R* : The rate of formation of stars suitable for the development of intelligent life (number per year).
fp : The fraction of those stars with planetary systems.
ne : The number of planets, per solar system, with an environment suitable for life.
fl : The fraction of suitable planets on which life actually appears.
fi : The fraction of life bearing planets on which intelligent life emerges.
fc : The fraction of civilizations that develop a technology that produces detectable signs of their existence.
L : The average length of time such civilizations produce such signs (years).
The origin of life can only come from life, not by random chance. It was Louis Pasteur summarized his scientific experiments in the phrase "Omne vivum ex vivo", which means "Life [is] from Life."
In the following sections below we will examine just one of the 322 characteristic needed for a life-supporting body. We've chosen the earth’s rotational axis tilt to analyze the impact it has in supporting life on earth.
Earth's temperature changes are primarily caused by the tilt in our earths axis as it rotates. This tilt is caused by the tidal interaction by the moon and the sun which also causes seasons. Our earth's tilt is (+) or (-) 2 degrees (22 - 24 degree range) over a time scale of about 41,000 years. The tilt is minimal. This slight tilt is not true of other planets like Mars where their axis tilts any where's from 60 to 90 degrees. A dramatic tilt fluctuation, as in the case of Mars (60 degree), causes extreme seasonal shifts where there is no possibility of animal life on the planet.
Mars and Earth are both continually bombarded with comets daily (which are 85% frozen water). This water replenishes the water on earth and life could not exist without it. The reason why we don't see see large ice caps on Mars like we do on earth is because of the drastic change or instability of Mars axis tilt. Mars' 60 degree tilt exposes its ice cap to warmer radiation to the sun which causes it to evaporate much faster. This is one reason we don't see life on Mars.
What prevents earths rotational tilt from being more than only 2 degree in fluctuation is that we have a gigantic moon orbiting a small planet. A gigantic moon and small planet causes our rotation axis to be very stable. If we look at the mass of our moon compared to the mass of the host planet, it's 50 times greater than the mass of it's host planet. We are living on the only known plant-moon system where the axis tilt is stable. The moon's proximity to the earth is also plays into the axis stability (the moon is only ~239 thousand miles from earth).
The 2-degree tilt variation is also the primary reason why we have a planet with an Ice Age Cycle where the coverage of ice on the earth's surface varies between 10% to 23% on a time scale of 40,000 to 100,000 years. A 10% ice coverage it is called an interglacial ice age which is the phase we are in currently. The other thing that causes a variation in the temperature of our plant's surface is the variation in the shape of our orbit. When the orbit become more elliptical, we become warmer, when it becomes less elliptical, we become colder. This is secondary effect driving an ice age cycle. We live in a fine-tuned planet.
The Moon is currently 60.3 Earth radii away from us or take to radius of the Earth and multiply it by 60 times to get the distance it's orbiting the Earth. When the Moon formed it was 3.8 Earth radii away from Earth 4.498 billion years ago. The Moon is gradually moving away from the Earth at a rate of 3.78 centimeters (1.48 inches) per year. This means that as we move into the future we will see fewer and fewer total solar eclipses and primarily, they will be annular eclipses. The tidal interaction between them is causing them to separate. The moon spiraling away will continue for the next 40 billion years. At that point they will have the identical rotation rate of ~40 days and then the separation will reverse. In 80 billion years from now the Moon will collide with the Earth.
To the left is an graph of the earths' ice age cycle for the past 1.2 million years. Our last few ice age cycles have lasted around 100,000 years where you have about 23% of the planet covered in lots of ice for 90,000 years and then another 10,000 year of an interglacial (warm) period where ice coverage drops down to about 10% of ice coverage where the ice (glaciers) are melting and temperatures are rising. Temperatures become warmer as the surface area of the ice caps melts reflecting more light. The Ice melting feeds are rivers and streams. The actual date for the ignition of the ice age cycle is 2.58 million years ago...remember this number (see Astroid Events below).
Notice in the graph that the ice age cycles use to be much more frequent around every 41,000 years. The interglacial (warm period) use to be 3,000 years which wasn't enough time to launch global civilization - we need at least 10,000 years minimum for that to occur. Scientists believe that there was a large asteroid that hit the earth 800,000 years ago that disrupted the cycle and cause the tectonic plates to shift. This shift moved one of the plates to what is today Antarctica. Recently, Scientist discover that there were actually three large asteroids (discussed below) that hit the Earth within a short period of time. Typically, an asteroid impact occurs once every 20 million years and we've had three.
"No one is useless in this world who lightens the burden of it for anyone else."
― Charles Dickens
Novelist , 1812-1870
For the past 2.58 million years the earth has experienced extreme climate instability until the past 9,500 years where we now experience extreme climate stability. Below we cover all the fine-tuning events that occurred in history in order for global civilization to flourish.
The first graph shows the mean temperature readings for the last four ice age cycles. Notice how the global mean temperature goes up and down from 2° to -8° centigrade depending on whether its the beginning or end of the cycle. We can also tell that each cycle becomes more sever each 100,000 years. This explains why the temperature shifts so dramatically causing the ice sheets to expand and contract at such rapid rates. This also explains why humans living 35,000 years ago couldn't launch global civilization with dramatic temperature fluctuation by +-18°F over just a few centuries.
The third graph shows how stable the global mean temperature has been for the past 9,500 years as we came out of the last ice age which launched global human civilization. The human workforce has moved from spending 98% of their time on farms harvesting crops for food to doing more productive things to benefit civilization. Today, less than 1% of the workforce producing more than enough food to feed all the rest of us. This has allowed the other 99% of civilization to do other jobs like advancing technology so we all can all carry around Smart phones and read this Website. This is all happened because we have climate stability.
We also see that global warming always brings on global cooling. From the first graph, if the temperature were to increase 2° centigrade past where we are today, it would melt the polar ice caps. When you melt polar ice caps, instead of 60% of sun light being reflected away, only 6% reflected away igniting an ice age cycle. This means that the artic ocean absorbs solar heat which makes water vapor which falls on Siberia and Canada as snow. What has prevented this from happening this time is the Younger Dryas (named after an artic flower) cooling event (temporarily reversed the gradual climatic warming). This stopped the typical dramatic warming that melts the polar ice caps from our bright sun.
In fact, our axis tilt has been declining which means that the earth is becoming colder and colder. Our global mean temperature over the past 9,500 years has decreased .8° centigrade. The global mean temperature should have declined by 15° centigrade when you factor in the most recent Greenland asteroid event (see Asteroid Collision Events below). This was prevented by human activity which caused the planet to warm. Domestication of cows, rice irrigation, deforestation, etc. These activities have a huge warmings effect by releasing large quantities of methane and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The amount of methane has doubled since humans launched global civilization. This didn't quite balance the cooling effect yet. In the past 70 years human activity has increased, the global mean temperature has increased by 1° centigrade. If it goes up another 1.5° centigrade we will melt the polar ice caps and kickoff an ice age.
Managing future warmings effects involves a very "convenient truth" that we are enjoying a period of extreme climate stability. We have the knowledge to sustain it for another 1,000 years without draconian economic sacrifices. This "know how" will restore climate stability and boost the world economy. We live in a planet designed by our Creator that when we face issues we are to obey His commands that He gave us in the Book of Job and Genesis to manage the planet for our benefit and the benefit of all life. He will provide solutions to our ecological & environmental crisis that will benefit all life. We need to look for those solutions.
A team of scientist lead by Matthew Osman for the first time used surface temperature proxies exclusively from all the oceans of the world producing by far the most comprehensive and accurate temperature record for the past 24,000 years. Temperatures tend to become more and more unstable as we go from sea level to the higher elevations. This study gives us the most reliable insights by using surface temperatures only to reveal the impact of greenhouse gases like carbon soot produced by humans from burning coal, wood, oil and brush fires. The study does show that since 1900 the global mean temperature has risen ~ 1° centigrade. In conclusion, we are in fact experiencing global warming at a small degree over the past century due to multiple factors. This increase is not dramatic enough to bring us into another ice age cycle. It would take an additional increase of at least 2°-4° centigrade to melt the polar ice caps triggering an ice age cycle, so the earth would get a whole lot colder, not warmer (explanation covered above).
Article below featured in Nature Magazine, Volume 599, pages239–244 (2021)
"Globally resolved surface temperatures since the Last Glacial Maximum"
"The meeting of two personalities is like the contact of two chemical substances: if there is any reaction, both are transformed."
― Carl Jung
Psychiatrist (26 Jul 1875-1961)
Stars are like human beings, they are very unstable when they are young and very unstable when they are old meaning there is a lot of solar flare activity. Our star, the sun, is the most stable star know to exist as shown in the chart. The length of time in the 8 billion year history of our sun is .01% of it's entire history. Flaring minimum occurs when the sun is exactly half its age which is 4.57 billions years old. Extreme solar stability only last less than, < 100,000 years. We now know that our sun enter for the first time into extreme luminosity phase about 40K/50K years ago. That means we are already half way. Life can only exist on earth when the sun is middle age and we are in an Ice Age Cycle.
When the sun undergoes fusion like all stars do, it becomes more dense in its core. So when the sun is young, its accumulating mass so it becomes very bright, then it stops losing mass and then nuclear fusion kicks in (converts hydrogen into helium). As it converts more hydrogen into helium it becomes brighter and brighter as show in the chart to the left. Are sun is so bright today that we shouldn't have any ice at all according to the physics of the sun. Yet it does...actually most of the earths history we have had no ice.
Astronomers have been exhaustively searching for 65 years another star that is sufficiently like our sun that could be a candidate to have a planet orbiting it for which advanced life could exist. They have been unsuccessful in their efforts. Howerver, they have found over 5,000 planets in the past 40 years beyond our solar system without one of them being like any planet found in our solar system. As far as the science goes, we appear to be alone.
90% of life's history on planet earth has had no ice and the sun luminosity has become 20% brighter during the same period (4.57 billion years). This should be a time when we have no ice. So, how do we explain why there is ice on earth today? Recently, Geophysicist and Astronomers have discovered that cycle of 10% to 23% ice covering began by a combination of geophysical and astronomical events.
"The greatest threat to freedom is the absence of criticism."
― Wole Soyinka
Playwright, Poet, Nobel Laureate (b. 13 Jul 1934)
A. Geophysical: There have been 5 unprecedented tectonic plate events that all happened at the same time to explain how the planet got cold enough to form ice caps. They all must happen at the same time otherwise we don't get combination that provides adequate cooling. To the left is an image of Pangea which was a supercontinent that started to break apart 175 million years ago.
1. Antarctica was attached to Australia, broke off and remained attached to South America. Then it broke off South America and moved rapidly to the South Pole where it stopped. Powerful winds and ocean currents that move around the now isolated continent which cause it to cool. This is the 1st place ice began to appear on planet earth. Ice reflects sunlight (60% efficiency) so as Antarctica cooled, it had an effect on the rest of the planet. The cold water from Antarctica started to move north up the Atlantic Ocean cooling the other continental land masses.
2. Greenland was adjacent to New Finland at a low elevation (no ice) until it got a tectonic kick and starting moving towards the North Pole and stopped 1,100 miles later. It rested over a hot "magma plume" which pushed its land mass that was less than 500 feet below sea level to ~8,000 feet above sea level. Both events had to occur to form ice over Greenland.
3. Pangaea was a supercontinent that existed approximately 335 million years ago, and began to break apart about 175 million years ago. This is the first time in the supercontinent cycle where most of the land mass was in the northern hemisphere enclosing the artic ocean. The artic ocean enclosure caused ice cap to form over the artic ocean reflecting sunlight produced a cooling effect over the rest of the planet.
4. North and South America were separate continents 10 million years ago. Warm water from the Pacific Ocean helped the formation of the Isthmus of Panama which closed off the Central American Seaway. This prevented Pacific warm water from moving into the cold waters of the Atlantic, keeping the Atlantic landmasses ice covered.
5. Indian Subcontinent was attached to Madagascar 10 million years ago. It separated from Madagascar and rapidly moved north towards Asia Continent at a rate was 22 cm/year (2 cm/year is average rate). When India crashed into Asia it created a huge tectonic event. This caused the formation of the Himalayan mountains which are just pushed up sea floor. This is why there are sea shells near the top of Mount Everest. This event is still going on today because Mount Everest gets taller a few cm every year. The higher the elevation grows, more ice forms causing more cooling. The last ice age cycle was so sever that we still have ice 13,000 years later.
B. Astrophysical: Even with these five unprecedented amazing tectonic plate events happening simultaneously, Astronomers felt this wasn't adequate cooling enough to offset the 20% increase in the suns brightness. There must be something else overlooked causing enough cooling for ice to exist. So what started this ice cooling over Antarctica?
1. Antarctica: An giant asteroid collision event just South of Chili 2.58 million years ago was recently discovered. This is the exact same time as the start of the ice age cycle. The asteroid hit where the Pacific Ocean floor is so deep (17,000 feet) where no crater was ever formed. They only found the isotope signature existing within a 60,000 square mile radius from the entry point proving the asteroid hit at that location. Astronomers since determine that the asteroid was 1-2 KM diameter (1 mile). When the largest known asteroid, which caused tsunamis 1,000 feet high to radiate throughout the Pacific Ocean. It cause salt water and ocean floor material to be thrown up into the atmosphere creating an aerosol cloud that covered the earth. This cloud covering that reflected sunlight and cooled the planet allowing ice to form in Antarctica. This is equivalent to a nuclear winter lasting several years that blocked out sunlight. This was the most dramatic event that kicked off the ice age cycle.
2. South China Sea: Approximately, 800,000 years ago and asteroid hit a larger land mass that obliterated it and the remnants today are called the Spratly Islands. There is still a debris cloud caused by this asteroid circulating our solar system that we pass through it every 100,000 years. This explains why the ice age cycle changed from a 41,000 year to a 100,000 year cycle.
3. Greenland: This asteroid crater was discovered under 3,000 feet of surface ice, so it too was difficult to locate. When it hit 12,000 years ago, it melted a lot of ice in Greenland and cause debris to scatter all of North America. The impact caused the ice to rapidly receding in North America forming a giant glacial lake (Lake Agassiz). The fresh cold artic water started to surround Greenland and push back the gulf stream which resulted in a major global cooling effect. This explains why we haven't yet melted the polar ice caps and why we have had this long period of climate stability.
Are these events just some cosmic accidents or coincidences? Asteroid events of this magnitude only happen once ever 10 to 20 million years. There was a lot of skepticism amongst scientist because 3 such "big" events occurred in such a short period of time. We now have the evidence that makes these events undeniable. Why now when we are are located in the middle of spiral arms? These "big" events should only happen when you crossing spiral arms. This should be a time when we have very few collision events. Just think - all three asteroid events must be large in size, hit at the right locations and times just so we have this period of extreme climate stability. The Creator is tossing rocks at the earth hitting the target at the right locations, at the right time with the right intensity so we can enjoy this rare time of climate stability.
The natural asteroid collision rate on earth is such that a large asteroid hits the earth every 20-30 million years. What are the odds that three large asteroids would hit the earth within 2.5 millions year period at just the right time, in just the right locations? This is truly amazing and astounding! It's as if God was throwing darts at the earth in specific location and times in order to move the tectonic plates in the exact location required to support human life.
We are living in a period when we've had no nearby Supernovae eruptions. In the previous ice age (40K - 15K years ago) we had four eruptions and one close enough to impact our health at 300 light years away, not enough to kill us from deadly cosmic rays, but enough to degrade agriculture productivity. The chart shows the most recent supernova events. Notice that the closest one was only 5,000 light years away, far enough away to have no impact on civilization or agricultural production.
After Noah's flood the human lifespan in the Bible dropped from a maximum of 900 years to a maximum of 120 years. For this dramatic drop to be possible humans living before Genesis 6:3 or before Noah's Flood would have been exposed to a lot less cosmic radiation than we are today. Evidences put forth by two astronomer partners who have been gather research over the past 35 years making the point that if we look at the entire cosmic ray spectrum, the "knee" which is the cornerstone in understanding the origin of cosmic rays, indicates that a supernova that exploded in recent history of the Earth that is responsible for 95% of the killer cosmic rays. Most cosmic ray are made up of electrons and protons which really don't impact or limit our lifespan, but the ones that are responsible for shortening our lifespan are the killer cosmic rays where the nucelli are larger than the nucelli of a helium atom (carbon, oxygen, uranium). If the killer cosmic ray are moving slowly it's not an issue, it's the fast moving, heavy nucelli cosmic rays that are the most deadly and responsible for shortening human lifespan. These two Astronomer have now identified the supernova remnant responsible for the 95% of the killer cosmic rays. They've documented that this single supernova eruption must have exploded close to the Earth because the remnant is approximately 15° angle across the sky. They are currently working on a date when it exploded and all they can tell is that it was sometime less than 100,000 years ago. This supernova explosion date would help explain why the human lifespan has decreased so significantly since Noah's Flood (Noah live 950 years) to the time of Abraham (Abraham lived 175 years).
British Astronmer Sir Arnold Whittaker Wolfendale & Russian Astronomer Anatole Erlykin
From a theological perspective, humans are much better off with a short lifespan. We are better off living maximum of 120 years, than 950 years. If we allow people to live 950 years that tilts the advantage towards evil people that are intent on taking advantage of righteous people. That was the problem during the Noah's pre-Flood era because the population was being thinned out by all the righteous people being killed off by the wicked people. Imagine if we allow a serial killer or Adolf Hitler to live 950 years...they could cause a lot of damage. Thank God Hitler died at the age of 56. We are better off having a shorter lifespan.
We've already seen that it's critical that we live during an ice age cycle. Otherwise, we could not produce enough food to support a large civilization. If you just want a few hundred humans living in a small region, you might not need an ice age cycle. What requirement would we need to support billions of humans on earth? There are three primary requirements:
1. Must be at the end of an ice age cycle
2. Sun must be exactly middle-aged or 4.57 billion years old (minimum flaring, stable luminosity)
3. Must be when there is and episode of extreme climate stability
The past 9,500 years have been the most extreme climate stability our earth has ever observed. This period we have been living in has been an extreme exception. Climate instability has typically been the norm. It is critical that we live in an ice age cycle where a civilization's of billions of people can exists, otherwise we would still be living in stone age technology. We are living in the most beautiful and scenic moment in the history of our planet.
Below are some benefits of an ice age cycle:
There are now 11 different reasons why a human civilization sustaining billions of humans would be impossible if it were not for us living at the end of a highly fine-tuned, ice age cycle. A scientific research team has discovered a twelfth reason (1). An especially strong ice age cycle, like the one we are in now, generates many large gravel-bed river floodplains, which prove to be ecological bonanzas.
An ice age cycle where the amount of ice coverage on Earth’s surface is between 10% to 24% has only been in effect for only the last 0.00057 part of Earth’s history. It came about as a result of the sun reaching the midpoint of its burning history and five simultaneous very rare and very dramatic tectonic events (2). However, until just 800,000 years ago, the ice age cycle’s period was too brief to produce the benefits required for launching a global human civilization. Furthermore, only the last deep ice age in the cycle yielded all the benefits necessary for global human civilization to be possible. We are living in the only interglacial period in the ice age cycle and for that matter, in the entire history of the earth during which billions of humans could live and receive God’s gift of redemption.
This ice age cycle produces many long-lasting gravel-bed river floodplains. Such floodplains only occur in glaciated mountain landscapes. Melting glaciers, especially valley glaciers, in mountain ravines and canyons result in water, rocks, gravel, and silt spreading out in valleys below the mountains. Such landscapes are characterized by four, highly differentiated seasons. These seasonal differences produce “dynamic fluvial processes that constantly change and renew the surface and subsurface of the river’s valley floor (3).
For the first time, an interdisciplinary research team—that involved hydrologists, avian ecologists, fresh water biologists, and large mammal ecologists worked together both to study the geological and ecological dynamics of gravel-bed river floodplains and to take an inventory of all the benefits such floodplains bring. They found that these floodplains support an unexpectedly high number of species. Specifically, they determined these floodplains are “focal points for biodiversity in maintaining viable aquatic, avian, and terrestrial populations (4).”
The following is a list of the unique benefits accruing from gravel-bed river floodplains that the research team has discovered to date:
The team further noted that without floodplain habitats, many large-bodied mammal species—for example, moose, beaver, and river otters—would not survive. They also observed that top predators, such as wolves, critically depend upon gravel-bed river floodplains for their food. They estimated that 40% of all kills by wolves occur on gravel-bed river floodplains.
Did you ask yourself if you believe all of these events occurred randomly or did they involve divine intervention?
What are the odds that all these things just happened by chance to support life? It's a zero chance and we really don't need to bother with the math! None of these events were by accident. Every single event played a key role in making it possible for billions of humans to exist on the earth at one time. God fined tuned our universe, galaxy and planet so that billions of humans could be redeemed. He has fine turned our universe over the past 13.8 billion years is to bring about the complete eradication evil and suffering.
A entire universe was created in order to support 1 planet where human life can exist. Make the universe any smaller or bigger, life can't exist. The laws of physics, the size and mass of the universe, and even the space-time dimensions were all designed to be tools in the hand of the Creator to completely eradicate evil and suffering, while human freewill is being enhanced.
To the left is an image of what North America looked like during the glacial ice age 26,000 years ago. As you can see North America experiences the most effects of an ice age cycle. Approximately, 55% of the planet was covered with ice at its height. Notice Canada is completely frozen over.
This verse inspired Matthew Maury to discover and make many important new contributions to charting winds and ocean currents, including ocean lanes for passing ships at sea.
Matthew Fontaine Maury
The Father of Modern Oceanography and Naval Meteorology
1806, Spotsylvania County, Virginia
The Physical Geography of the Sea (1855)
This verse describes light waves and radio waves. It says that light can be sent and manifest itself in speech. All electromagnetic radiation from radio waves to x-rays travels at the speed of light. This is why we can have instant, wireless communication with someone on the other side of the earth. The fact that light can be sent and manifest itself in speech wasn't discovered by science until 1864, or 3,300 years later by Scottish scientist, James Clerk Maxwell who suggested that electricity and light waves were two forms of the same thing.
James Clerk Maxwell
1832, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
Founder of the Modern Electrical Engineering
A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field (1865)
In 1492 Christopher Columbus (inspired by biblical scripture) discovered The America's, during an era when a myth was circulation amongst scientist at the time that ancient civilizations believed the Earth was flat.
How could the Bibles' authors (Job & Isaiah) possibly know the earth was round and free floating in space recorded 1,500 years before science? The authors must have been inspired by the God of the Bible.
The word for circle in Hebrew is "khoog" meaning to encircle, encompass, describe a circle, draw round, make a circle.
In the 18th and 19th centuries scientists invented and promoted a myth that all the ancients believed the Earth was flat. The fact that at different locations on Earth different stellar constellations are seen and they are seen at different orientations was sufficient to persuade ancient peoples that they were living on a spherical body. Aristotle writing in the 4th century BC cited this evidence as proof that Earth is spherical. However, documented mentions of a spherical Earth by Greek philosophers date back to the 6th century B.C. Eratosthenes in the 3rd century BC used the sunlight lines at summer solstice in wells at different latitudes to determine the diameter of Earth to 1% precision. Both ancient Greek and Egyptian astronomers pointed to the semi-circular shadow of Earth on the Moon during lunar eclipses as evidence for the sphericity of Earth. None of the ancients believed in a flat Earth although there were some references in their fantasy literature. The ancients had easy ways of determining that the Earth was the shape of a sphere; observing the stellar constellations, Earth's shadow cast on lunar & solar moon eclipses, the obelisk shadow lengths from different locations and looking at the shadow angel of the sun down a deep well. The ancients didn't have access to Algebra to predict the future position and distances of planets. They couldn't use the Sun as the center of the solar system even though they knew this fact. Instead they had to use the Earth as the center to determine their calculation.
Ancient used the naked eye to determine cosmological measurements. Real answers are in parenthesis.
Nowhere in the Bible do we find any text saying that Earth is flat. The biblical texts most often cited in the claim that the Bible teaches a flat Earth are Job 38:5, 12-14, Isaiah 11:12, 40:22, and Revelation 7:1, 20:7. Of these passages, the most cited is Isaiah 40:22. The relevant part of Isaiah 40:22, referring to God, states, “He sits enthroned above the circle of the earth, and its people are like grasshoppers.” Whether the “circle of the earth” refers to a human on Earth or God looking down on Earth from above, in both cases the phrase would be consistent with a spherically shaped Earth. It is worth noting that only a sphere always looks like a circle when seen from above.
The Isaiah 11:12 and Revelation 7:1, 20:7 verses all refer to the “four corners of the earth.” However, even today, astronomers, physicists, and educated people around the world recognize and use the “four corners of the earth” as phenomenological language referring to the most distant parts of Earth from the standpoint of an observer at a specific location on Earth. It is clear from an examination of the context for all three of these passages that the most distant parts of Earth is the intent implied by the use of the idiom, the four corners of the earth. As the Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament points out, the Hebrew word for “corners” used in Isaiah 11:12, "kanap", in most of its appearances in the Old Testament is used figuratively.
The passage in Job 38:5 referring to Earth states, “Who fixed its dimensions? Certainly you know! Who stretched a measuring line across it?” The inference made by those claiming that the Bible is a flat-earth book is that the “measuring line” is a straight line which would be suitable for measuring a flat disk but not a sphere. This is an overinterpretation. Lines can be straight or curved. Also, it is customary to measure the diameter of a sphere with a straightedge ruler. Job 38:12-14 refers to the dawn seizing “the edges [or ends] of the earth” and Earth taking “shape like clay under a seal.” What is interesting here is that for a spherical Earth the arrival of dawn first shows up at the most distant horizon, end, or edge of the point of view of a human at a fixed point upon Earth’s surface. The taking shape like clay under a seal would apply to either a disk or a sphere and may be saying more about Earth’s rotation or its manufacture than its actual shape.
The irony of choosing Job 38:5, 12-14, Isaiah 11:12, 40:22, and Revelation 7:1, 20:7 to sustain the claim that the Bible is a flat-earth book is that these biblical texts better fit a spherical Earth than they do a flat Earth.
Ref, Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and Modern Historians
by Jeffrey Burton Russell, 1991
Ref: Flat Earth: The History of an Infamous Idea Hardcover, 2008
by Christine Garwood
Most recent survey taken said that 8% of the American population is still convinced that the earth is flat when just before the birth of the Internet it was 0%. This recent rise is due to fake news conspiracy theories. The Flat Earth Society is back in business again. Today the curvature of the Earth is obvious when looking at the horizon in a plane.
"On of the proofs of the immortality of the soul is that myriads have believed in it. They have also believed the world was flat."
― Mark Twain
We are the only known planet with three poles; North, South and Middle Pole. There are other planets with two poles. The South Pole consists of East and West Antarctica which is first ice cap to form and the largest pole as far as landmass. The lesser known, third pole is over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau as seen in the picture in green and yellow-orange. The yellow-orange area is the ice cap which is the larges of the three in winter. It covers over one million square miles in total. One reason there is so much ice is the elevation. For every 1,000 feet the temperature drops 4° centigrade. Everything colored in the picture is above 16 meters which is one mile elevation or more. The part colored in green is around 20° colder and the yellow-orange is 60° colder, so everything over 5,500 meters (3.4 miles) is permanently covered with ice and snow. The team of scientist concluded that the land are covered by the Himalayan glaciers has shrunk 40% over the past 550 years using paleo ice sheet reconstruction processes that measure the melt rate of where the glacier was located originally verses where the boundaries are located today. In the last 550 years the melt rate has been .011 to .02 meters per year. From 1975 to 2000 the melt rate has been .21 meters per year and from 2000 to 2016 the melt rate has increased to .43 meters per year. At this rate we could see the third pole completely disappear in the next couple of centuries. This is a major concern because there are 20 major rivers that flow out of the Tibetan Plateau into India, Pakistan, Southeast Asia and China. These rivers affect 3.5 billion people and if they dry up, then so does their food supply. This is a problem for the entire world because of the sunlight reflection provided by the Tibetan Plateau ice caps is four times greater than that of the other poles. This impacts the degree of planet cooling. We really haven't noticed the impact because the melting has increased the waterflow to these rivers. There have also been melt rate increase in the Canadian Rockies.
We do not need to eliminate all fossil fuels though to save the Tibetan Plateau. We could rapidly and economically slow down the melting process immediately by implementing the following:
Ref: Ethan Lee
Nature Scientific Reports volume 11, Article number: 24284 (2021)
At the peak of the last ice age 23% of the planet was covered with thick ice and most people lived in the global south closer to the equator. For another ice age cycle to occur in the 22 century we would need to see significant shrinkage of the winter polar ice cap. Much of the alarm today about climate change is directed at the melting of the summer ice cap. The melting of the summer ice cap typically causes more rain to fall on Canada and Siberia which the rain will not accumulate as ice. The real danger is if we see significant shrinkage in the polar winter ice cap which mean open ocean liquid water in the artic will be reflecting sunlight with a 6% efficiency instead of 60% efficiency. All that extra absorbed solar heat will create cold vapor which will fall as snow. The last time this occurred was around a 100 years ago, but has since stabilized.
The warning sign from previous ice ages that we are heading into another ice age cycle is when we see significant shrinkage in the winter polar ice cap. First we would see an accumulation of snow and ice in Western Siberia (Finland, Norway) first followed up by accumulation of snow and ice in Canada (Newfoundland and Labrador). We don't see the possibility of this happening anytime soon.
To the left is a climate chart for the past 10,000 years based on Oxygen Isotope sample taken in Greenland which have a permanent trend of fluctuating temperatures (oxygen isotopes indicate temp). This chart also shows climate stability for the past ~1,300 years after the last ice age ended. This is concrete proof that the climate models promoted by today's Scientist are false and have a nonscientific agenda. Clearly, divine intervention is at work.
322 parameters (physical properties) & the odds (probability) that parameters will fall in the required range for physical life:
local abundance and distribution of dark matter, 0.1
relative abundances of different exotic mass particles, 0.01
decay rates of different exotic mass particles, 0.05
density of quasars, 0.1
density of giant galaxies in the early universe, 0.1
galaxy cluster size, 0.1
galaxy cluster density, 0.1
galaxy cluster location, 0.1
galaxy size, 0.1
galaxy type, 0.1
galaxy mass distribution, 0.2
size of galactic central bulge, 0.2
galaxy location, 0.1
variability of local dwarf galaxy absorption rate, 0.1
quantity of galactic dust, 0.1
giant star density in galaxy, 0.1
frequency of gamma ray bursts in galaxy, 0.05
star location relative to galactic center, 0.2
star distance from corotation circle of galaxy, 0.005
ratio of inner dark halo mass to stellar mass for galaxy, 0.1
star distance from closest spiral arm, 0.1
z-axis extremes of star's orbit, 0.02
proximity of solar nebula to a normal type I supernova eruption, 0.01
timing of solar nebula formation relative to a normal type I supernova eruption, 0.01
proximity of solar nebula to a type II supernova eruption, 0.01
timing of solar nebula formation relative to type II supernova eruption, 0.01
timing of hypernovae eruptions, 0.2
number of hypernovae eruptions, 0.1
masses of stars that become hypernovae, 0.1
flux of cosmic ray protons, 0.1
variability of cosmic ray proton flux, 0.1
gas dispersal rate by companion stars, shock waves, and molecular cloud expansion in the Sun's birthing star cluster, 0.1
number of stars in birthing cluster, 0.01
star formation rate in parent star vicinity during history of that star, 0.1
variation in star formation rate in parent star vicinity during history of that star, 0.1
birth date of the star-planetary system, 0.01
number of stars in system, 0.7
number and timing of close encounters by nearby stars, 0.01
proximity of close stellar encounters, 0.1
masses of close stellar encounters, 0.1
density of brown dwarfs, 0.1
distance from nearest black hole, 0.2
absorption rate of planets and planetismals by parent star, 0.1
star age, 0.4
star metallicity, 0.05
ratio of 40K, 235,238U, 232Th to iron in star-planetary system, 0.02
star orbital eccentricity, 0.1
star mass, 0.001
star luminosity change relative to speciation types & rates, 0.00001
star color, 0.4
star rotation rate, 0.3
rate of change in star rotation rate, 0.3
star magnetic field, 0.1
star magnetic field variability, 0.1
stellar wind strength and variability, 0.1
short period variation in parent star diameter, 0.1
star's carbon to oxygen ratio, 0.01
star's space velocity relative to Local Standard of Rest, 0.05
star's short term luminosity variability, 0.05
star's long term luminosity variability, 0.05
amplitude and duration of star spot cycle, 0.1
number & timing of solar system encounters with interstellar gas clouds and cloudlets, 0.1
galactic tidal forces on planetary system, 0.2
H3+ production, 0.1
supernovae rates & locations, 0.01
white dwarf binary types, rates, & locations, 0.01
structure of comet cloud surrounding planetary system, 0.3
planetary distance from star, 0.001
inclination of planetary orbit, 0.5
axis tilt of planet, 0.3
rate of change of axial tilt, 0.01
period and size of axis tilt variation, 0.1
planetary rotation period, 0.1
rate of change in planetary rotation period, 0.05
planetary revolution period, 0.2
planetary orbit eccentricity, 0.3
rate of change of planetary orbital eccentricity, 0.1
rate of change of planetary inclination, 0.5
period and size of eccentricity variation, 0.1
period and size of inclination variation, 0.1
precession in planet's rotation, 0.3
rate of change in planet's precession, 0.3
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in solar nebula, 0.1
number of moons, 0.2
mass and distance of moon, 0.01 surface gravity (escape velocity), 0.001
tidal force from sun and moon, 0.1
magnetic field, 0.01
rate of change & character of change in magnetic field, 0.1
albedo (planet reflectivity), 0.1
density of interstellar and interplanetary dust particles in vicinity of life-support planet, 0.3
reducing strength of planet's primordial mantle, 0.3
thickness of crust, 0.01
timing of birth of continent formation, 0.1
oceans-to-continents ratio, 0.2
rate of change in oceans to continents ratio, 0.1
global distribution of continents, 0.3
frequency, timing, & extent of ice ages, 0.1
frequency, timing, & extent of global snowball events, 0.1
silicate dust annealing by nebular shocks, 0.02
asteroidal & cometary collision rate, 0.1
change in asteroidal & cometary collision rates, 0.1
rate of change in asteroidal & cometary collision rates, 0.1
mass of body colliding with primordial Earth, 0.002
timing of body colliding with primordial Earth, 0.05
location of body's collision with primordial Earth, 0.05
position & mass of Jupiter relative to Earth, 0.01
major planet eccentricities, 0.05
major planet orbital instabilities, 0.05
drift and rate of drift in major planet distances, 0.05
number & distribution of planets, 0.001
distance of gas giant planets from mean motion resonances, 0.02
orbital separation distances among inner planets, 0.01
mass of Neptune, 0.1
total mass of Kuiper Belt asteroids, 0.1
mass distribution of Kuiper Belt asteroids, 0.2
average rainfall precipitation, 0.01
variation and timing of average rainfall precipitation, 0.01
atmospheric transparency, 0.01
atmospheric pressure, 0.01
atmospheric viscosity, 0.1
atmospheric electric discharge rate, 0.01
atmospheric temperature gradient, 0.01
carbon dioxide level in atmosphere, 0.01
rates of change in carbon dioxide levels in atmosphere throughout the planet's history, 0.001
rates of change in water vapor levels in atmosphere throughout the planet's history, 0.01
rate of change in methane level in early atmosphere, 0.01
oxygen quantity in atmosphere, 0.01
nitrogen quantity in atmosphere, 0.01
carbon monoxide quantity in atmosphere, 0.1
chlorine quantity in atmosphere, 0.1
aerosol particle density emitted from forests, 0.05
cobalt quantity in crust, 0.1
arsenic quantity in crust, 0.1
copper quantity in crust, 0.1
boron quantity in crust, 0.1
cadmium quantity in crust, 0.1
calcium quantity in crust, 0.4
fluorine quantity in crust, 0.1
iodine quantity in crust, 0.1
magnesium in crust, 0.4
manganese quantity in crust, 0.1
nickel quantity in crust, 0.1
phosphorus quantity in crust, 0.1
potassium quantity in crust, 0.4
tin quantity in crust, 0.1
zinc quantity in crust, 0.1
molybdenum quantity in crust, 0.05
vanadium quantity in crust, 0.1
chromium quantity in crust, 0.1
selenium quantity in crust, 0.1
iron quantity in oceans, 0.1
tropospheric ozone quantity, 0.01
stratospheric ozone quantity, 0.01
mesospheric ozone quantity, 0.01
water vapor level in atmosphere, 0.01
oxygen to nitrogen ratio in atmosphere, 0.1
quantity of greenhouse gases in atmosphere, 0.01
rate of change in greenhouse gases in atmosphere, 0.01
poleward heat transport in atmosphere by mid-latitude storms, 0.2
quantity of forest & grass fires, 0.01
quantity of sea salt aerosols in troposphere, 0.1
soil mineralization, 0.1
quantity of anaeorbic bacteria in the oceans, 0.01
quantity of aerobic bacteria in the oceans, 0.01
quantity of anaerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the early oceans, 0.01
quantity, variety, and timing of sulfate-reducing bacteria, 0.00001
quantity of geobacteraceae, 0.01
quantity of aerobic photoheterotrophic bacteria, 0.01
quantity of decomposer bacteria in soil, 0.01
quantity of mycorrhizal fungi in soil, 0.01
quantity of nitrifying microbes in soil, 0.01
quantity & timing of vascular plant introductions, 0.001
quantity, timing, & placement of carbonate-producing animals, 0.00001
quantity, timing, & placement of methanogens, 0.00001
phosphorus and iron absorption by banded iron formations, 0.01
quantity of soil sulfur, 0.1
ratio of electrically conducting inner core radius to radius of the adjacent turbulent fluid shell, 0.2
ratio of core to shell (see above) magnetic diffusivity, 0.2
magnetic Reynold's number of the shell (see above), 0.2
elasticity of iron in the inner core, 0.2
electromagnetic Maxwell shear stresses in the inner core, 0.2
core precession frequency for planet, 0.1
rate of interior heat loss for planet, 0.1
quantity of sulfur in the planet's core, 0.1
quantity of silicon in the planet's core, 0.1
quantity of water at subduction zones in the crust, 0.01
quantity of high pressure ice in subducting crustal slabs, 0.1
hydration rate of subducted minerals, 0.1
water absorption capacity of planet's lower mantle, 0.1
tectonic activity, 0.05
rate of decline in tectonic activity, 0.1
volcanic activity, 0.1
rate of decline in volcanic activity, 0.1
location of volcanic eruptions, 0.1
continental relief, 0.1
viscosity at Earth core boundaries, 0.01
viscosity of lithosphere, 0.2
thickness of mid-mantle boundary, 0.1
rate of sedimentary loading at crustal subduction zones, 0.1
biomass to comet infall ratio, 0.01
regularity of cometary infall, 0.1
number, intensity, and location of hurricanes, 0.02
intensity of primordial cosmic superwinds, 0.05
number of smoking quasars, 0.05
formation of large terrestrial planet in the presence of two or more gas giant planets, 0.1
orbital stability of large terrestrial planet in the presence of two or more gas giant planets, 0.01
total mass of Oort Cloud objects, 0.2
mass distribution of Oort Cloud objects, 0.2
air turbulence in troposphere, 0.1
quantity of sulfate aerosols in troposphere, 0.1
quantity of actinide bioreducing bacteria, 0.01
quantity of phytoplankton, 0.001
hydrothermal alteration of ancient oceanic basalts, 0.01
quantity of iodocarbon-emitting marine organisms, 0.01
location of dislocation creep relative to diffusion creep in and near the crust-mantle boundary (determines mantle convection dynamics), 0.1
size of oxygen sinks in the planet's crust, 0.2
size of oxygen sinks in the planet's mantle, 0.2
mantle plume production, 0.1
number and mass of planets in system suffering significant drift, 0.2
mass of the galaxy's central black hole, 0.3
timing of the growth of the galaxy's central black hole, 0.5
rate of in-spiraling gas into galaxy's central black hole during life epoch, 0.05
distance from nearest giant galaxy, 0.5
distance from nearest Seyfert galaxy, 0.9
amount of mass loss by star in its youth, 0.1
rate of mass loss of star in its youth, 0.3
rate of mass loss by star during its middle age, 0.3
quantity of magnetars (proto-neutron stars with very strong magnetic fields) produced during galaxy's history, 0.05
variation in coverage of star's surface by faculae, 0.5
ratio of galaxy's dark halo mass to its baryonic mass, 0.2
ratio of galaxy's dark halo mass to its dark halo core mass, 0.2
galaxy cluster formation rate, 0.1
proximity of supernovae and hypernovae throughout history of planet and planetary system, 0.1
tidal heating from neighboring galaxies, 0.5
tidal heating from dark galactic and galaxy cluster halos, 0.5
intensity and duration of galactic winds, 0.3
density of dwarf galaxies in vicinity of home galaxy, 0.1
amount of photoevaporation during planetary formation from parent star and other nearby stars, 0.2
orbital inclinations of companion planets in system, 0.1
variation of orbital inclinations of companion planets, 0.2
inclinations and eccentricities of nearby terrestrial planets, 0.3
in-spiral rate of stars into black holes within parent galaxy, 0.7
strength of magnetocentrifugally launched wind of parent star during its protostar era, 0.2
degree to which the atmospheric composition of the planet departs from thermodynamic equilibrium, 0.01
delivery rate of volatiles to planet from asteroid-comet belts during epoch of planet formation, 0.1
amount of outward migration of Neptune, 0.1
amount of outward migration of Uranus, 0.1
Q-value (rigidity) of planet during its early history, 0.2
variation in Q-value of planet during its early history, 0.3
injection efficiency of shock wave material from nearby supernovae into collapsing molecular cloud that forms star and planetary system, 0.1
number of giant galaxies in galaxy cluster, 0.2
number of large galaxies in galaxy cluster, 0.2
number of dwarf galaxies in galaxy cluster, 0.2
number and sizes of planets and planetesimals consumed by star, 0.3
distance of galaxy's corotation circle from center of galaxy, 0.1
rate of diffusion of heavy elements from galactic center out to the galaxy's corotation circle, 0.2
outward migration of star relative to galactic center, 0.3
degree to which exotic matter self interacts, 0.01
migration of planet during its formation in the protoplanetary disk, 0.1
viscosity gradient in protoplanetary disk, 0.1
variations in star's diameter, 0.1
average quantity of gas infused into the universe's first star clusters, 0.1
frequency of late impacts by large asteroids and comets, 0.1
level of supersonic turbulence in the infant universe, 0.05
number and sizes of intergalactic hydrogen gas clouds in galaxy's vicinity, 0.1
average longevity of intergalactic hydrogen gas clouds in galaxy's vicinity, 0.2
minimization of chloromethane production by rotting plants and fungi that are exposed to the atmosphere (life's survival demands very efficient burial mechanisms and relatively low temperatures), .01
avoidance of apsidal phase locking in the orbits of planets in the planetary system, 0.03
number density of the first metal-free stars to form in the universe, 0.02
epoch during which the first metal-free stars form in cosmic history, 0.1 level of spot production on star's surface, 0.2
variability of spot production on star's surface, 0.2
size of the carbon sink in the deep mantle of the planet, 0.05
average circumstellar medium density for white dwarf red giant pairs, 0.2
number densities of metal-poor and extremely metal-poor galaxies, 0.1
rate of growth of central spheroid for the galaxy, 0.05
amount of gas infalling into the central core of the galaxy, 0.1
level of cooling of gas infalling into the central core of the galaxy, 0.1
ratio of dual water molecules, (H2O)2, to single water molecules, H 2O, in the troposphere, 0.03
heavy element abundance in the intracluster medium for the early universe, 0.1
quantity of volatiles on and in Earth-sized planet in the habitable zone, 0.001
rate of infall of intergalactic gas into emerging and growing galaxies during first five billion years of cosmic history, 0.1
pressure of the intra-galaxy-cluster medium, 0.1
proximity of solar nebula to a type I supernova whose core underwent significant gravitational collapse before carbon deflagration, 0.01
timing of solar nebula formation relative to a type I supernova whose core underwent significant gravitational collapse before carbon deflagration, 0.01
sizes of largest cosmic structures in the universe, 0.01
level of spiral substructure in spiral galaxy, 0.2
mass of outer gas giant planet relative to inner gas giant planet, 0.05
Kozai oscillation level in planetary system, 0.7
triggering of El Nino events by explosive volcanic eruptions, 0.1
time window between the peak of kerogen production and the appearance of intelligent life, 0.1
time window between the production of cisterns in the planet's crust that can effectively collect and store petroleum and natural gas and the appearance of intelligent life, 0.1
reduction of Kuiper Belt mass during planetary system's early history, 0.1
efficiency of stellar mass loss during final stages of stellar burning, 0.3
efficiency of flows of silicate melt, hypersaline hydrothermal fluids, and hydrothermal vapors in the upper crust, 0.2
supernova eruption rate when galaxy is young, 0.2
range of rotation rates for stars are on the verge of becoming supernovae, 0.2
quantity of dust formed in the ejecta of Population III supernovae, 0.1
chemical composition of dust ejected by Population III stars, 0.3
time in cosmic history when the merging of galaxies peaks, 0.2
efficiency of ocean pumps that return nutrients to ocean surfaces, 0.1
sulfur and sulfate content of oceans, 0.3
density of extragalactic intruder stars in solar neighborhood, 0.4
density of dust-exporting stars in solar neighborhood, 0.3
average rate of increase in galaxy sizes, 0.1
change in average rate of increase in galaxy sizes throughout cosmic history, 0.1
proximity of solar nebula to asymptotic giant branch stars, 0.05
timing of solar nebula formation relative to its close approach to asymptotic giant branch stars, 0.05
orientation of continents relative to prevailing winds, 0.3
quantity and proximity of gamma-ray burst events relative to emerging solar nebula, 0.01
proximity of superbubbles to planetary system during life epoch of life-support planet, 0.03
proximity of strong ultraviolet emitting stars to planetary system during life epoch of life-support planet, 0.02
number, mass, and distance from star of gas giant planets in addition to planets of the mass and distance of Jupiter and Saturn, 0.01
quantity and proximity of galactic gamma-ray burst events relative to time window for intelligent life, 0.1
infall of buckminsterfullerenes from interplanetary and interstellar space upon surface of planet, 0.3
quantity of silicic acid in the oceans, 0.1
heat flow through the planet's mantle from radiometric decay in planet's core, 0.002
water absorption by planet's mantle, 0.01
timing of star formation peak for the universe, 0.2
timing of star formation peak for the galaxy, 0.2
Notes: Estimate of dependency and longevity factors are accounted for at the end of the list. References to relevant science research papers and books also follow the list. The definition used here for a planet is broad enough to include a large satellite orbiting another planet. For reasons why satellites in general and starless planets are not suitable candidates for a life-support body see Lights in the Sky and Little Green Men by Hugh Ross, Kenneth Samples, and Mark Clark (Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2002), pp. 39-41.