Only one life, 'twill soon be past, only what’s done for Christ will last. C.T. Studd
Biblical inerrancy means that the Bible is without error or fault in all of its teachings. Scriptures from the original manuscripts are considered to be the Word of God and the absolute truth. The Bible declares that its words are inspired by God through whom it is impossible for Him to lie or deceive, therefore His word must mirror His true character and the facts of nature must also agree. The Bible has passed the truth test for thousands of years. If the Bible was in error, it would have been exposed by countless skeptics throughout history who have tried to discredit its inerrancy, and all have failed. If a single untruth or error in any of the original manuscripts existed, it would be a first. If the Canon were inspired by man, it would be full of errors, inconsistencies and contradictions as you will see below with many of the manuscripts found in performance-based religious faiths.
Jews and Christians have spent centuries establishing and forming the Canon. The Canon contains 39 books in the Old Testament and 27 in the New Testament written by 40 different authors. Preservation of the Bible for the first 1,500 years before Christ has strictly been a Jewish activity. Every book in the Bible was written or inspired by a Jew except one...the Book of Job. The only chapters in the Old Testament that were not written in Hebrew are Daniel chapters two through seven which were written in Chaldean language for the times of the gentiles. Chaldeans (Gentile) are a Catholic ethno-religious community from northern Iraq who spoke dialect of Aramaic in their villages. The Gospel of Luke was physically written by Luke, but the actual story source came from the Apostle Paul. The same goes for the Gospel of Mark where the actual story source was Peter's version.
Jews made up some rules for both books in that the content had to be consistent with the Ten Commandments. For example, The Books of Maccabees 1 and Maccabees 2 both give a true account of the intertestamental period between the last of the Old Testament and the New Testament books with an accurate history, but there are a couple of passages that condone murder as opposed to allowing the State to be the ones that have authority. Did the book come from an acclaimed author? Maccabees 1 and Maccabees 2, we know the author was Jewish, but the author's names were unknown. These books violated the Ten Commandment principle, so they were excluded fro m the Canon. Another principal would be, does the book actually speak from the authority of God himself, meaning does it say, “Thus says God”? Does the book have that claim of authority?
Another test would be, does the book have predictive power? For example, does the book make any predictions of future historical events or scientific claims? Does the book have evidence of predictive power (prophesy) which helps solidify its authenticity. The predictions must be 100% accurate in what it says about history, geography or science. Moses verse below warns us of false prophets and how to know if they are fake. If they make any future prediction about history, geography or science events and they are not 100% accurate, then you can be absolutely sure they are a false prophet.
There was a dispute 35 years ago on the Book of Isaiah where scholars took computer analysis of the book and thought that it was written by four different authors even through the book is loaded with predictive power and passed the test. It was later proven that Isaiah was written by one person at four distinct times of his life where each part was separated by at least a decade. The Book of Isaiah was written over a 40-year period. For a more comprehensive reading on the Canon please read: F. F. Bruce, The canon of scripture, 19-22.
The Bible has proven to be a reliable collection of historical documents written by eyewitnesses during the lifetime of other eyewitnesses recording supernatural events that took place to fulfill specific prophesies and claim that their writings are from a divine source rather than human in origin. 1st Corinthians was written at the time when 301 of the book's eyewitnesses were still living. This needs to be considered as evidence that it was not fabricated.
The Bible is a miracle book. It's a miracle that takes place when a skeptic becomes a believer in Christ through hearing the scripture (Romans 10:17). God will provide a specific word to a specific person in a specific situation to reach us during our life.
There is a special warning to those Preterists (Preterism), Dominionist (Dominionism), Cults and False Prophets who attempt to alter or exclude the God's Word from the Bible will be excluded from the Tree of Life which means they will be banned from entering eternity in The New Jerusalem (The Second Creation). God is especially serious about the teaching of Revelation if anyone distorts it's meaning. A good example of false preaching is the Jehovah Witness who claims to be 144,000 evangelist in Book of Revelation, not the Israelites.
An interesting story is that of David Harold Chilton who was a Preterist that preached Christian eschatology (end times). David falsely interpreted end times prophecies of the Bible as events which have already happened. He suffered a massive heart attack while preaching in the pulpit and went into a six-week coma where he later died at the age of 45.
"I have wondered at times what the Ten Commandments would have looked like if Moses had run them through the US Congress."
― Ronald Reagan
40th U.S. President
The scientific method could be used to identify errors and contradictions in all of the Holy Books because all of these books discuss the universe. Once tested, if the Holy Book is in error then it cannot be inspired by the perfect God of all creation. A perfect God's written word must be without error.
If the Holy Book is from a human source there are going to be mistakes, inconsistencies and contradictions, but if the words were really inspired by the one who created the universe, the true God, it will be just like the universe where everything is consistent, harmonious and without contradiction. The following books were examined:
1. Hinduism: Vedas records an oscillating, reincarnating universe that has a beginning, grows and then collapses and repeats this cycle every 4.32 billion years. Error #1: the is no rebound mechanism that would allow it to restart because of the universe's high entropy level. Error #2: The universe is 13.8 Billion years old.
2. Buddhism: Various commentaries cosmology references are borrowed, unchanged from Hinduism.
3. Islam: Koran records 3 accounts of creation, but they contradict one another. One of them tells us the stars are closer to us than the planets. The naked eye tells us this is false. Not to mention that it records the gestation period for a female as 6 months (not 9 months)... it must have been inspired and written by man.
4. Mormon Scriptures: Book of Mormon records that if you are a good Mormon you will get your own planet to populate. The master planet is called Kolob is located at the center of our galaxy which is the very worse place for a planet to be located to have life (black holes & Radiation). All of the planet characteristics were wrong too.
5. Baháʼí Faith: Borrows all the kernels of truths from other religions and combine them into a consistent package. After examining, it turns out that the take all the errors from other religions and combine them into an inconsistent package.
6. Christian/Jewish Bible: The Holy Bible contains the Hebrew Bible and New Testament texts. One major difference from the other holy books was that it wasn't poetic, esoteric, or written in vague language. Other holy books contained little to no information about the beginning of the universe to put them to the test, whereas the Holy Bible contains clear language that covered geography, science, history repeatedly (Job & Psalms, Genesis). Just read Genesis 1 below which in contrast to other holy books, it follows the scientific method.
The Bible was the only Holy Book that got a perfect score 14/14. It received 4/4 on the initial conditions, and 10/10 on the description of the day events which were in the correct chronological order with respect to the scientific record. The only other book that placed was the Numo Orisha of the Babylonians which got 2/14 correct which were in the wrong order. The rest of the Holy Books scored a 0.
We applied the Scientific Method to test Genesis 1 in the "Intelligent Design" section....link below.
"The Bible was not given for our information, but for our transformation."
― D.L. Moody
Major archaeological discoveries in the last 150 years have done more to substantiate the accuracy of the Bible more than any other single thing has done to date. There have been over 25,000 archeological digs that relate directly to the subject matter of the Bible at not one of them has contradicted anything in the Bible. Throughout history Bible myth's have been concocted by skeptics that have since been proven false by archaeology. We could have listed hundred's, but below are just a few. Critics of the Bible once said (examples):
1. Moses couldn't have written the first 5 books of the Bible (Torah) because writing was unknown in the near east around 1,500 B.C.E. We now know from archaeology that people could write in the near east over 3,000 B.C.E. The cuneiform script were created in Mesopotamia (Iraq) around 3,200 B.C.E. The Epic of Gilgamesh (pictured left)is a poem written on clay tablet 1,900 B.C.E. describing a great flood that wiped out civilization except one man. There are now thousands of example of these ancient clay tablet writings. There's evidence that slaves in the mines wrote on the caves walls, so certainly Moses who was raised in Egypt as a wealthy prince could write too.
2. Abraham of the Bible never existed or if he did exist, the Bible account of him are greatly distorted. For example, Moses hometown, Ur of the Chaldeans, never existed. In 1927, Archeologist, Leonard Woolley, excavated the site and identified it as a Sumerian archaeological site where the Chaldeans were to settle around the 9th century B.C.E.
3. The Bible verse about Jordon Valley being lush and green with various cities in the time of Sodom and Gomorrah could never have happened. Nelson Glueck, an American rabbi, academic and archaeologist who discovered over 1,500 site during his life dug up 70 different cities in the Jordan valley and proved that in the time of Abraham that the area was lush and green exactly how the Bible described it: "Lot raised his eyes and saw all the vicinity of the Jordan, that it was well watered everywhere—this was before the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah—like the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt going toward Zoar." Genesis 13:10
4. The customs that Abraham practiced in the Book of Genesis were completely foreign to the culture in the time the Bible says that Abraham lived. The Nuzi tablets discovered sometime between 1925 to 1931 confirms all the customs at the time of Abraham recorded in the Bible. For example, they found if your wife couldn't have a baby, it was custom for the handmaiden to have the baby for you. The tablets also say if your wife gets pregnant, it was permissible for you to send the handmaiden and child away. About 20,000 Akkadian cuneiform clay tablets were found in Nuzu just east of ancient Asshur (modern dY Iraq). Scholars believe that they help shed light on their customs the Horites (or Horim) mentioned in the Pentateuch (Genesis 14:6; Deuteronomy 2:12). The Nuzi tablets revealed that they were a significant ancient people who played a major role in ancient Near Eastern culture. Abraham had contact with the Horites when he lived in Haran. David E. Graves, Key Themes of the Old Testament: A Survey of Major Theological Themes
5. There was never that much gold that Moses brought out of Exodus (Golden Calf, Exodus 32) because there wasn't that much gold in all of Egypt at that time. This could not be proven because just about every tomb in Egypt had been looted. It wasn't until 1922, by accident Howard Carter, an English Archaeologist and Egyptologist, unearthed the intact tomb of the 18th Dynasty Pharaoh, Tutankhamun (King Tut) in the Valley of the Kings containing hundreds of pounds of gold items including his solid gold inner coffin that weighed 243 lbs. King Tut only ruled only 8 years...imagine how much gold was buried in the tombs of the greatest pharaohs.
6. The account of the capture of Jerusalem where the Bible tells us that Joab crawled through a water shaft got into the city secretly at night to unlock the gates to let David's troops in was preposterous. That was until Charles Warren entered through the Gihon Spring and crawled through Hezekiah's Tunnel where he discovered a shaft that rises to the upper "secret" tunnel, the Ancient water system that has been called the “Warren's Shaft System” ever since apparently used to get water from the outside when the city was under siege. "On that day David had said, “Anyone who conquers the Jebusites will have to use the water shaft to reach those ‘lame and blind’ who are David’s enemies. That is why they say, “The ‘blind and lame’ will not enter the palace.” 2 Samuel 5:8
7. The character King David in the Bible never existed because there has never been any proof. In 1993 a stone dating 830 B.C.E. was discovered in the excavation in the city of Tel Dan and what’s significant about this stone is its inscription, the earliest extra-biblical reference to the "House of David."
8. The governor of Rome, Pontius Pilate, in the province of Judaea mentioned in the bible never existed, neither did Caiaphas the High Priest who condemned Jesus. The Pilate stone is a damaged block of carved limestone with a partially intact inscription attributed to, and mentioning, Pontius Pilate, a prefect of the Roman province of Judea from 26 to 36 A.D. It was discovered at the archaeological site of Caesarea Maritima (Roman HQ's) in 1961. The artifact is particularly significant because it is an archaeological find of an authentic 1st-century Roman inscription mentioning the name "Pontius Pilatus". The Caiaphas ossuary is one of twelve ossuaries or bone boxes discovered in a burial cave in south Jerusalem in November 1990, two of which featured the name "Caiaphas".
9. The story in Acts 13:4-14 where it says that Proconsul, Sergius Paulus, was lead to Christ by the Apostle Paul on his first missionary journey to the Island of Cyprus. Sergius Paulus never existed. In 1877 a Greek inscription was discovered at Soloi, on the northern coast of Cyprus, dating to 54 A.D., mentions a “proconsul Paulus.”
10. The Nation of Israel never existed unified in the State of Palestine before 500 B.C.E. In 1896 Flinders Petrie discovered the Merneptah Stele in Thebes, also known as the Israel Stele, which has an inscription by the ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Merneptah from 1208 B.C.E. when he invaded the land of Israel. The monument contains a reference to his victory in line 27,"Israel is laid waste and his seed is not;"
It seems like the more artifacts we dig out of the ground, the more the Bible is proven to be historically accurate.
What Archaeology Reveals About the Truth of the Bible
In the book titled "The Stones Cry Out : New Archeological Discoveries of the Bible", 1997, by Randall Price, Archaeologists have unearthed both surprising and substantial answers to these questions and others. Pottery shards, stone inscriptions, ancient scrolls, and other fascinating artifacts have shed new light on the people and events of the Bible, bringing them from the realm of mystery to the world of fact.
"It is now becoming increasingly clear that the traditions of the patriarchal age preserved in the Book of Genesis reflect with remarkable accuracy the actual conditions of the ancient near east."
― William Foxwell Albright
American Archaeologist, Biblical Scholar, Philologist, and Ceramics Expert
The Saint John Fragment, Papyrus P52, a fragment from a papyrus codex written in Greek, is generally accepted as the earliest extant of a canonical New Testament text. The front of the fragment (recto) contains lines from the Gospel of John 18:31-33, and the back (verso) contains lines from verses John 18:37-38. The fragment measures only 3.5 by 2.5 inches (9 by 6.4 cm) at its widest. It is conserved at the John Rylands Library at Manchester. Because the dating is so close to the time when John was living (6 A.D - 100 A.D.) There is strong evidence today that suggests that John the Apostle is the author of the First, Second and Third Book of John and Revelation.
The dating of the papyrus is by no means the subject of consensus among critical scholars. The style of the script is strongly Hadrianic, but the difficulty of fixing the date of a fragment based on paleographic evidence allows an estimated date of ~119 A.D.
The fragment of papyrus was among a group acquired on the Egyptian market in 1920 by Bernard Grenfell. The original transcription and translation of the fragment of text was not done until 1934, by Colin H. Roberts.
The Dead Sea Scrolls are considered to be the archaeological find of the 20th century worldwide. Please select the link below to get the full story.
"On the whole … archaeological work has unquestionably strengthened confidence in the reliability of the Scriptural record. More than one archaeologist has found his respect for the Bible increased by the experience of excavation in Palestine. Archaeology has in many cases refuted the views of modern critics.”
― Millar Burrows
Professor of Archaeology, Yale University
There are a few reason why God wanted prophecy included in the Bible:
The best examples of the supernatural Word of God is in the Bible is in the form of prophesy. Prophesy scripture predicting future events makes up approximately 30% of the Bible text. No other faith based Holy Book even comes close to that amount of content dedicated to predicting future events. Other Holy Books make predictions, but they are focused on short term predictions a few generations in advance whereas the Bible does both making predictions thousands of year into the future. God chose specific men to accomplish His purpose by giving His Word a supernatural predictive power. He chose prophets to record these events before they happen so that no one could question His authority and to prove to us that He exists.
It's impossible for someone other than God to guess future events with a 100% reliability. If a prophet makes any future prediction about history, geography or science events and their predictions are not 100% accurate, they are considered to be a false prophet.
There are thousand's of prophetic prophesies in the Bible that provide evidence that the Bible has supernatural character. For example:
Unique among all books ever written, the Bible accurately foretells specific events in detail many years, sometimes centuries, before they occur. Approximately 2,500 prophecies appear in the pages of the Bible, about 2,000 of which already have been fulfilled to the letter with no errors. The remaining 500 or so reach into the future and may be seen unfolding as we approach Christ's Second Coming. Since the probability for any one of these prophecies having been fulfilled by chance averages less than one in ten (figured very conservatively) and since the prophecies are for the most part independent of one another, the odds for all these prophecies having been fulfilled by chance without error is less than one in 10^2000 (that is 1 with 2,000 zeros written after it).
What follows is a discussion of a few Bible predictions that exemplify a high degree of specificity, range of projection, and/or the “supernatural” nature of the predicted events. Readers are encouraged to select others, as well, and to carefully examine their historicity.
Since these thirteen prophecies cover mostly separate and independent events, the probability of chance occurrence for all thirteen is about 1 in 10^138 (138 equals the sum of all the exponents of 10 in the probability estimates above). For the sake of putting the figure into perspective, this probability can be compared to the statistical chance that the second law of thermodynamics will be reversed in a given situation (for example, that a gasoline engine will refrigerate itself during its combustion cycle or that heat will flow from a cold body to a hot body) that chance = 1 in 10^80. Stating it simply, based on these thirteen prophecies alone, the Bible record may be said to be vastly more reliable than the second law of thermodynamics. Each reader should feel free to make his own reasonable estimates of probability for the chance fulfillment of the prophecies cited here. In any case, the probabilities deduced still will be absurdly remote.
Given that the Bible proves so reliable a document, there is every reason to expect that the remaining 500 prophecies, those slated for the “time of the end,” also will be fulfilled to the last letter. Who can afford to ignore these coming events, much less miss out on the immeasurable blessings offered to anyone and everyone who submits to the control of the Bible’s author, Jesus Christ? Would a reasonable person take lightly God’s warning of judgment for those who reject what they know to be true about Jesus Christ and the Bible, or who reject Jesus’ claim on their lives?
*The estimates of probability included herein come from a group of secular research scientists. As an example of their method of estimation, consider their calculations for this first prophecy cited:
Hence, the probability of chance fulfillment for this prophecy is 1 in 5,000 x 10 x 2, which is 1 in 100,000, or 1 in 10^5.
God is not the only one, who uses forecasts of future events to get people’s attention. Satan does, too. Through clairvoyants (such as Jeanne Dixon and Edgar Cayce), mediums, spiritist and others come close with their predictions, though rarely with more than about 60% accuracy and never with 100% accuracy. Messages from Satan, furthermore, fail to match the detail of Bible prophecies, nor do they include a call to repentance.
Reasons To Believe, P7501, 1975
Revised 08-22-2003 by Krista Bontrager
There are some prophecies that have two predictions. There is a clue that tells us that the prophecy is double when there are two specific time marks in the text that will identify that this particular prophecy will be fulfilled at time mark one and time mark two. For instance, in Isaiah 7 the prophecy first son that is born within a few years of the prophecy is named Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz and the son that is to be born many generation later is named Immanuel. The clues of a double prophecy are very subtle. Isiah also gives the son two names, not just one.
Double prophecies became an issue with the Jews and the coming of the Messiah. Jesus only fulfilled 105 of the 400+ Messianic prophecy's so Jesus can't be the Messiah. The Jews were convinced that He was going to fulfil them all in one coming and this is why many Jews don't become Christians. This is incorrect because there were two time marks meaning the Messiah was coming twice leaving from and returning to the Mount of Olives (Matthew 24, Mark 13, Luke 21).
After Alexander the Great destroyed the Phoenician army and the city of Tyre (Lebanon) because they fled to an Island about a mile away (as prophesized in Ezekiel 26:1-6), Alexander the Great marched on to Gaza to conquer the rest of the Phoenician's and on the way he realized his flank would be exposed to another people called the Judeans whose capital city was Jerusalem. As Alexander entered Jerusalem to conquer them, the high priest asked to meet him waiving the white flag of surrender. The high priest said that he had a message for Alexander from the God of Heaven. The high priest also had a scroll of the Book of Daniel in his other hand. He proceeded to interpret the Book of Daniel to Alexander at the gates of Jerusalem where Daniel predicted his entire career over 200 years before it happened. The high priest said to Alexander, you are destined to conquer the world though your life will be short, it will be great (Alexander died at the young age of 32 years). According to the historian Josephus, Alexander fell on his face in front of the high priest and declared there was no God like the God of Israel. Alexander declared the city free and did no harm to it. From that day forward Alexander saw himself as invincible because of this prophesy. We know that this account must of happened otherwise he would have conquered Jerusalem.
In every major battle Alexander displayed reckless bravery by riding in the front of his soldiers. He was never killed much less injured in battle to the point where his people started wondering if he was a god. This struck fear in the hearts of the enemy and he finally destroyed the Persian Army and empire at the Battle of Gaugamela. He was eventually killed by one of his own in 332 B.C.E. in the city of Susa in Persia . They say he was either poisoned or drank himself to death because he wasn't able to enter and conquer China. He never named one of Roxanne's (wife) young sons as his successor to the throne and instead, on his death bed he said defiantly; "Give it to the strong" leaving the Kingdom to his four field marshals who divided it up .You won't see this story in any of the secular History books. Below is the verse which described a mighty Greek king who would conquer the Persian Empire.
"In battle, plans are immediately useless, however planning is everything."
— Dwight D. Eisenhower
34th U.S. President
Why are there four gospels about the life and ministry of Jesus Christ when God could have easily compiled them all into one book?
It's because He wanted them to appeal to three different cultures that ran throughout the Roman Empire in the first century. There were Greeks (Greek), Romans (Latin) and Jewish (Hebrew) people coexisting at that time. In order to make a living (trade commerce) at that time one needed to speak three languages; primarily Greek, Latin and your own native tongue. This is why we see these books written in different languages and each specifically written to target a particular culture. The objective was to reach as many people as possible with the gospel message. One observation of the authors is that Matthew wrote what Jesus said, Mark wrote about what Jesus did and Luke wrote how Jesus felt.
The four gospels of the New Testament cover the 3.5 year ministry and life of Jesus Christ are recorded in Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. The first three books are referred to as the "synoptic gospels," because they look at things in a similar way and we find similar material in all three. The Book of John is much different in that John was a teenager when the synoptic gospels were written soon after Jesus death and resurrection (all written before 60 A.D.). They were all written by eye witnesses who walked, talked and ate with Jesus. It took them a while to digest the fact they they they were specifically chosen to accompany the living God. John wrote his book near the end of his life between 98-101 A.D. as confirmed by Polycarp form Smyrna who was a disciple of John who lived with him.
Matthew was a tax collector who was immersed in the Israel's culture. The Book of Matthew was specifically written to appeal to the Jewish culture so the stories chosen for the book targeted them notably. For example, Matthew begins with Christs' genealogy (normally, starting with a genealogy would be the death of any book). Although Christs' genealogy would be especially important to a Jew if you were claiming Christ as their Messiah. Whereas a Roman would have no interest in Christ's genealogy. His genealogy would prove that Jesus was a direct descendant of King David on both sides of his family tree, confirming prophesies; 2 Samuel 7:12-16; Isaiah 11:1; Jeremiah 23:5-6, Fulfillment: Matthew 1:1; Luke 1:32-33; Acts 15:15-16; Hebrews 1:5. Matthew also features prophesy's from the Old Testament that would greatly appeal to the questions a Jewish person would have about the Messiah.
The Gospel of Mark is called by this name because he wrote it, but he's not the author. The Apostle Peter is the author who wanted to appeal to the Roman culture. So he wrote down the stories and events that would most appeal to a Roman citizen. They would want to know what Jesus did that made Him the son of God. That's why the book covers one miracle after another. One event that would convince them of Christ's deity would be the story of the centurion's witness account of Jesus death on the cross. centurions were the backbone of the Roman Legion and they were held in high regard by the Roman people. It was the Centurion of the Watch who performed Jesus crucifixion said "And when the centurion, who stood facing him, saw that in this way he breathed his last, he said, “Truly this man was the Son of God!" Mark 15:39. Just think of how many crucifixion this centurion performed before Jesus? He had watched hundreds if not a thousand men die, but this crucifixion and death was unique as recorded by his response.
Luke was Jewish educated in Greek and the Greek culture. The Old Testament prophesy's that interest the Jews or the miracles that would appeal to the Romans would not necessarily appeal the the Greeks. The Gospel of Luke was written to appeal to the Greek scholars of that time. Luke (a gentile?) was a physician who carefully compiled testimonies with the dates, people names, positions in society and event locations. He would identify Caesar, the local governor, the provincial governor, etc., so readers could pinpoint exactly when these events occurred along with all the details as proof. Luke makes notes that he researched this and the people he is quoting were eye witnesses to the events. The Apostle Paul spent a lot of time in jail at the time the Gospel of Luke was written. Luke was in jail with Paul and spent much of that time recording Paul's account. It was written to appeal to the Greek mind and the idea of perfection. Greeks worshipped the idea of what a great, perfect human being would be like since they worshipped Greek Gods. This is why Luke emphasized the superhuman wisdom in the statements Jesus made.
John knew Jesus more intimately than any of the other disciples because he spent more time with Him. John also had more time to go over all the events he experience with Jesus which were recorded in the Book of John after he was released from prison in the Island of Patmos. John wrote the Book in Ephesus (Turkey) as a result of urging from the Presbyters (Church Elders of Asia). They knew he could write an in-depth view of Christ's deity that no one else had heard or witnessed and none of the other Gospel's reflected. It shows how Christ willingly laid aside the use of His divine power in order to live as a man even though He was God in the flesh. The Book of John was written about the deity of Jesus Christ and was not written to target a particular culture, it was written for all cultures that would come after. It was the last book of the New Testament written much later (~99 A.D.), after he wrote the Book of Revelation. There is evidence that the Book of John is the most circulated book in history. John died in Ephesus ~103 A.D. which is also where Mother Mary died and buried. John purposely excluded many events and miracles that were covered in the other gospels.
When we look at other cultures that surrounded Israel, it was common practice for the Assyrians, Babylonians and Egyptians to whitewash their history. That's why there is no mention of the Jewish Exodus in the Egyptian historical annals. The culture at that time only recorded their victories, not their failures, mistakes or defeats.
This is not the case in the Bible. For example, Peter denied Christ three times and doubting Thomas. If these were a concocted stories these would have certainly been eliminated. If someone wanted to concoct a story they certainly wouldn't have written four Gospel accounts of the events. There would have been just one Gospel. The fact that there are four different Gospel accounts gives it authenticity.
The Bible can be condensed into a story of three trees; The Tree of Life, The Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil and The Cross. It starts with the The Tree of Life and ends with the Tree of Life. Paul explains that is impossible for anyone to be saved by works of the law and that everyone under the law is cursed. Therefore, the only way to be redeemed is through Christ who removed our curse by “becoming a curse for us” when he was “hung on a tree.”
"I had rather teach one man to pray than ten men to preach."
— D. L. Moody
The Church never determined which new testament books would appear in the Bible. Many people think that the First Council of Nicaea was when the Canon of scripture was finally determined. This is a fallacy. The books of the New Testament were received as the inspired Word of God when they were written. The authors of these books had already proven that they were inspired by God by revelations from God and from fulfilled prophesy that were made. When, the impact from these books were much different from the impact from other books. Furthermore, all these books agreed with one another on doctrine and everything else. All that the First Council of Nicaea achieved in 325 A.D. was to recognize what had already been recognized all along. They just ratified the Canon of scripture.
The International Council on Biblical Inerrancy (ICBI) was founded in 1977 to clarify and defend the doctrine of biblical inerrancy. The Council sponsored three major "summits," each producing an important statement. Summit I met in Chicago on October 26–28, 1978. Over 300 Christian leaders, theologians and pastors attended and adopted the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy, consisting of nineteen articles with brief exposition. The copy of the Statement mailed to participants of the Summit on Nov. 7, 1978, just a week after the meeting, was relatively free from typographical errors. Papers delivered at the conference were published as Norman L. Geisler, ed., Inerrancy (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1980). Dr. Jay Grimstead, one of the organizers of the ICBI, describes the statement as: "a landmark church document" created "by the then largest, broadest, group of evangelical protestant scholars that ever came together to create a common, theological document in the 20th century. It is probably the first systematically comprehensive, broadly based, scholarly, creed–like statement on the inspiration and authority of Scripture in the history of the church."
The ICBI convened Summit II on November 10–13, 1982, in Chicago to discuss guidelines for principles of interpreting the Bible. Approximately one hundred people attended and adopted the Chicago Statement on Biblical Hermeneutics, comprising twenty–five articles and a brief exposition. Papers read at the conference were published as Earl D. Radmacher and Robert D. Preus, eds., Hermeneutics, Inerrancy, and the Bible (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984).
The final ICBI conference, Summit III, met on December 10–13, 1986 in Chicago. The participants adopted the Chicago Statement on Biblical Application, composed of sixteen articles with a separate introduction. Papers read at the conference were published as Kenneth S. Kantzer, ed., Applying The Scriptures (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1987).
One of the last actions of the ICBI was to transfer records of the organization to the archives at Dallas Theological Seminary to preserve them for future research. The ICBI files date from about 1978 to 1989 and fill sixty-nine linear feet. The records include correspondence, files regarding publications, documents about seminars and lay congresses, financial records, and copies of the statements adopted at the three conferences. The collection also has some scrapbooks and preservation copies of books published by the ICBI.
ICBI Statement: We affirm the harmony of special (Bible) with general (Nature) revelation and therefore of biblical teaching with the facts of nature. We deny that any genuine scientific facts are inconsistent with the true meaning of any passage of Scripture.
God had a plan for Alexander the Great. Alexander would show mercy to the people he conquered and had a great passion to covert them to the Greek culture. He opted not destroy them like most victors, but instead to win them over. God put this on his heart. Back when Alexander conquered all the tribes of Greece, he put the passion in the Greek people of how great they could be as a unified people under one language. At the time the Greeks spoke a lot of dialects such as Athenian, Ionian, Doric, etc.. How could Alexander give orders to an army if they all had different dialects? Alexander wrote the syntax down of his own language Koine or common Greek. Alexander constructed a new dialect that every Greek adopted as the common dialect. So every place Alexander's Army conquered he converted the people to the Koine Greek language. Guess what language the New Testament was written in...Koine Greek. God planned this so he could take the Gospel of Jesus Christ to the four corners of the ancient world so the people could understand it. When the Romans conquered the Greeks guess what language was adopted by the Romans wasn't Latin, but the Koine Greek language.
Athanasius Contra Mundum is Latin for "Athanasius against the world". He was also tagged with the nick name "Black Dwarf" by his enemies for being a short, dark-skinned Egyptian bishop who had plenty of enemies. In 325 A.D. at the age of 27, Athanasius of Alexandria began his leading role against the Arians as a deacon and assistant to Bishop Alexander of Alexandria during the First Council of Nicaea. Most often the problem was his stubborn insistence that Arianism, the reigning "orthodoxy" of the day, was in fact a heresy. The dispute began when Athanasius was the chief deacon assistant to Bishop Alexander of Alexandria. While Alexander preached "with perhaps too philosophical minuteness" on the Trinity, Arius, a presbyter (priest) from Libya announced, "If the Father begat the Son, then he who was begotten had a beginning in existence, and from this it follows there was a time when the Son was not." The argument caught on, but Alexander and Athanasius fought against Arius, arguing that it denied the Trinity. Christ is not of a like substance to God, they argued, but the same substance. Athanasius was exiled five times by four Roman emperors, spending 17 of the 45 years he served as bishop of Alexandria in exile. Yet in the end, his theological enemies were "exiled" from the church's teaching, and it is Athanasius's writings that shaped the future of the church.
"The will of God will not take us where the grace of God cannot sustain us."
— Billy Graham
Manuscript evidence was compiled in this way. Scholars would take multiple manuscript that were found at a different locations and at different times. For example, a manuscript found in Alexandria in the 4th century, a second in Antioch in the 3rd century and a third near Mount Sinai. Scholars would then take these three manuscripts and compare them word for word. And after doing the comparison, if you were to take the number of words that in the entire Greek New Testament that are questionable in meaning or that we don’t know what the original word was because there not enough evidence for it, the questionable words would amount to half a page (a total of ~1,281 pages or 0.04%). And If we never knew what those words are, it would not change one thing about our faith and what we understand about the scripture text. God made sure His Word was preserved.
Sceptics also attempt to discredit the Bile with examples like in 1 Corinthians 15:5 contradicts itself because it says " and that he appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve." How could Jesus appear to the twelve disciples when Judas hung himself? It should be eleven. If they read the rest of the Bible they would know that Judas was replace with Saint Matthias (Acts 1:26) right after the Crucifixion because there has to be twelve disciples and in order to qualify, you must have witnessed Jesus resurrection.
Sceptics also attempt to say that the Bibles been translated so many times that it has pieces missing and error. This couldn't be further from the truth because each version was translated from the original Hebrew, Koine Greek and Aramaic manuscript sources, not from each other. There are over 6,000 New Testament manuscripts or portions of them dating as far back as 125 A.D. which is a few decades within the completion of the New Testament. This is a staggering number when we compare it to the closest competitor, Homers Iliad, where there are only two hundred written two thousand years after these ancient written. Today these translations can now be tested using computer software to validate the translations to the ancient manuscripts.
Some Christians are troubled by differences in wording among various Greek New Testament texts: The Bible has scribal errors in it? Then how can I be sure what I’m reading is God’s word?
1. No theologies or denominations claim a particular text
Yes, there are differences between Bible manuscripts, and from a certain perspective, they can look alarmingly serious. For example, those manuscripts (and resultant Bible translations) which “omit” 1 John 5:7 seem to some readers to undermine the doctrine of the Trinity.
But there’s a simple way to demonstrate how trivial the differences between ancient manuscripts really are in terms of their effect on the body of truth that the Bible reveals. We have lots of doctrinal differences within Christianity, right? But there are no Calvinist manuscripts/versions, Arminian manuscripts/versions, Pentecostal, Reformed, Presbyterian, Episcopal, Congregationalist, Egalitarian, Complementarian, Integrationist, Cessationist, or Continuationist manuscripts/versions.
Take any systematic theology textbook you want, and the set of proof texts offered for particular points is for all practical purposes version-independent—the authors don’t care which translation you use, so they just give references. The difference in doctrinal character among the various manuscripts and translations is very close to zero. The “omission” of 1 John 5:7 (in the judgment of almost all textual scholars, those words were actually added very late in the manuscript tradition, not appearing in Erasmus’ Greek New Testament until its third edition) has not caused a single Christian denomination to descend into Unitarianism because the New Testament elsewhere still clearly teaches the doctrine of the Trinity. In fact, none of the Greek writings of the early church ever mentions this passage, even in their discussions of the Trinity! If the church fathers recognized and formulated that vital doctrine without referring to this verse, then its presence in the New Testament of their day is highly unlikely, and certainly its absence from a Bible text or translation today constitutes no defect in doctrinal character.
If the differences between Greek texts were doctrinally significant, you would expect theologies and tribal groups to grow out of distinctive readings of those texts—you would expect certain sects to adopt Greek texts as theological banners. But compare the positions of Majority text advocates, Textus Receptus devotees, and eclectic text users on the core doctrines of the historic creeds and you’d be hard pressed to find a doctrinal difference for which they claim support in their favored New Testament text as opposed to others.
Different Christian tribes bring somewhat different lenses to the Bible, but it’s the lenses that differ, not the Bible.
2. Even if we had perfect copies, the work of interpretation would still have to go on
If we had the originals themselves—the very pieces of papyrus Paul used to compose Romans and Ephesians, for example—or if no copies contained any textual variants at all, unlocking the Bible’s power would still require us to do exactly what we do now: search for Scripture’s wisdom as for hidden treasure, interpreting carefully, comparing Scripture with Scripture, and making relevant personal application. Nothing would change except that we would be able to dismiss from our minds the possibility that the text we’re working with may not preserve God’s exact inspired words with complete perfection. But weaknesses as a reader expose us to far more significant misunderstanding than the manuscript differences do, so by far the greatest problems that God must overcome in order to talk to me are within me, not within the transmission process.
3. Pristine perfection is a property of the next world, not (generally) of this one
It’s true that the Greek and Hebrew manuscripts we have can’t all preserve the exact wording of the originals (and by definition, a translation cannot do so). The fact that no two manuscripts are identical down to the jots and tittles means that at most only one manuscript of any given Bible book can be “perfect.” All manuscripts of any size (some are less than a page) contain some obvious scribal slips, so it seems clear that God hasn’t given us access to the one “perfect” manuscript of any book of the Bible.
The very strong pattern God has ordained is that pristine perfection is a property of the next world, not this one, so I just need to conform my expectations to that reality. The textual imperfections that generate so much angst and controversy are well within an easily tolerable range, and, while of course we must make the wisest choices we can, we can be completely at ease that, with the exception of extreme paraphrases or Bibles translated by cult groups, any Bible we may use is fully trustworthy as God’s Word. We need not fear that some of these Bibles are the devil’s. Where does Scripture warn us to ferret out and avoid the devil’s Bibles? It seems that, in his sovereignty, God has arranged that the very few Bibles possibly worthy of that categorization are obviously so, not subtly so.
Finally, if the manuscripts were hopelessly confused across their whole bodies of text about whether Paul’s gospel was justification by faith plus works of the law or justification by faith without works of the law; or if some manuscripts said that the baptism of the Spirit includes speaking with tongues and some said the opposite; or if some promised that Jesus would rapture his church before the Tribulation while others took what we now call a postmillennial view—then identifying the correct text would obviously be a matter of theological importance. Jesus called some matters of the law “weightier” than others (Matt 23:23)—if serious differences existed among those, we’d have a serious difficulty.
But the variations we have among manuscripts raise far different questions: does the inspired text say we have redemption through Christ’s blood twice or only once? Does it testify to Jesus’ atoning blood 44 times or only 43? Does John say “his anointing” or “the same anointing” (one letter different in Greek) in 1 John 2:27? Even the two major passages that are textually questionable—Mark 16:9-20 and John 7:53–8:11 —do not affect the doctrinal character of the New Testament. The former largely duplicates material found in the other gospels; the latter illustrates truths we know well from other passages: the scribes and Pharisees are self-righteous and Jesus is forgiving and yet demanding. If such textual variants represent Satan’s best attempt to corrupt the doctrinal character of Scripture, then God is clearly keeping him on a very short leash, indeed. Oh, for a life full to the brim of such problems as these!
The bottom line is that God has arranged things so that we can take any good English Bible translation, based on any textual or translation philosophy, treat it as if its every English word were straight from him, and get everything we need from that Bible to know, love, and live for him in a way that will bring Christ’s “Well done!”
Randy Leedy, PhD,
Bob Jones Seminary, 1994
"Greek New Testament Sentence Diagrams" and "Love Not the World".
"One may have a blazing hearth in one's soul, and yet no one ever comes to sit by it."
— Vincent van Gogh
Painter (30 Mar 1853-1890)
God wants us to test Him and His words found in the Bible. Another name for the Biblical Testing Method is the Scientific Method which originally came from the pages of scripture. This has been well documented by the Scottish Academic Press found by Thomas Forsyth Torrance, a Scottish Protestant Theologian and Minister. He gathered together a group of theologians and scientist which produced a 28 volume set published by the Scottish Academic Press that documents how the Scientific Method was derived from the pages of scripture, the creation text and in particular, Reformation Theology. It describes how Protestant Reformation Theology gave birth to a new way of analyzing scripture and duel revelation. Duel revelation is how we are to use the book of nature and the book of scripture to discern truth from God. This is what gave birth the what we call the Scientific Method today. Here are just a few Bible verses that established the origin of Scientific Method; Luke 16:31 1 John 2:16-17 1 John 2:18-19 1 John 2:22-23, 1 Corinthians 14:29,32.
Another way to describe this biblical testing method is as a series of steps and apply it to Genesis 1 below. Initial conditions are; Step 1 is the physical creation of the heavens and the earth, Step 2 the point of reference which is "hovering over the waters", Step 3 the earth was formless, empty, dark surface covered with water and unfit for life, Step 4 describes the creation days in great detail in the correct sequential order and all the "day" events are described accurately and according to the scientific record.
Step 8 is not the end of the biblical testing method. Since only God knows everything, the human investigator needs to return to steps 1, 2, and 3, for example, and determine if there is any need of revising, augmenting, and/or subtracting from one’s initial identification of the physical phenomena, the frame(s) of reference or point(s) of view, and/or the determination of the initial conditions. That is, the biblical testing method works best when practiced continuously and cyclically. It moves researchers closer to the truth.
1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth (universe).
2 The earth was without form and void, and darkness was over the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. (frame of reference).
3 And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light.
4 And God saw that the light was good. And God separated the light from the darkness.
5 God called the light “day,” and the darkness he called “night.” And there was evening, and there was morning—the first day.
6 And God said, “Let there be an expanse (canopy) in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.”
7 And God made[b] the expanse and separated the waters that were under the expanse from the waters that were above the expanse. And it was so.
8 And God called the expanse Heaven (sky). And there was evening and there was morning,—the second day.
9 And God said, “Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear.” And it was so.
10 God called the dry land Earth, and the waters that were gathered together he called Seas. And God saw that it was good.
11 And God said, “Let the earth sprout vegetation, plants[e] yielding seed, and fruit trees bearing fruit in which is their seed, each according to its kind, on the earth.” And it was so.
12 The earth brought forth vegetation, plants yielding seed according to their own kinds, and trees bearing fruit in which is their seed, each according to its kind. And God saw that it was good.
13 And there was evening and there was morning,—the third day.
14 And God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night. And let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years,
15 and let them be lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the earth.” And it was so.
16 And God made the two great lights—the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night—and the stars.
17 And God set them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth,
18 to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good.
19 nd there was evening and there was morning,—the fourth day.
20 And God said, “Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures, and let birds[g] fly above the earth across the expanse of the heavens.”
21 So God created the great sea creatures and every living creature that moves, with which the waters swarm, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good.
22 And God blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.”
23 And there was evening, and there was morning—the fifth day.
24 And God said, “Let the earth bring forth living creatures according to their kinds—livestock and creeping things and beasts of the earth according to their kinds.” And it was so.
25 And God made the beasts of the earth according to their kinds and the livestock according to their kinds, and everything that creeps on the ground according to its kind. And God saw that it was good.
26 Then God said, “Let us make man[h] in our image, after our likeness. And let them have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over the livestock and over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.”
27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them.
28 And God blessed them. And God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it, and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over every living thing that moves on the earth.”
29 And God said, “Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit. You shall have them for food.
30And to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the heavens and to everything that creeps on the earth, everything that has the breath of life, I have given every green plant for food.” And it was so.
31 And God saw everything that he had made, and behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning,—the sixth day.
"Not one change of species into another is on record...we cannot prove that a single species has been changed."
― Charles Darwin
My Life & Letters, 1887
Of all the other Holy Books the Bible stands alone in saying that the beginning of the universe is the beginning of space and time. The space-time theorems prove that there is a beginning to cosmic time. It also establishes that cosmic time is linear, so it cannot be stopped or reversed. Such a concept of time says everything must have a beginning or creation event with a causal agent that is constrained, but the causal agent that created time is not constrained in linear time. The cause and effect is independent of cosmic time means for the cosmic creator, he must have access to the equivalent of a minimum of two time dimensions, not just one. If time is two dimensional with a length of time and width of time, then we have an infinite number of timelines running in an infinite number of directions. If we place cosmic time in one direction, we have God dwelling on another timeline that's infinitely long that never crosses or touches our cosmic timeline as such that that being would have no beginning, no ending and is uncreated.
The Bible is the only Holy Book that says that God has no beginning, no ending and is uncreated. It's also the only Holy Book that says that God can arbitrarily compress time and expand time. Mathematically, that can only happen with two or more dimensions of time. God is not constrained by time, so he doesn't need a causal agent like we do to be created.
"We are tens years away from making a conscious artificial intelligence (AI) machine and will always be ten years away."
― MIT Artificial Intelligence Team
The Bible lists four great rivers in Genesis 2:10-14 that all meet in one place and this is where the Garden of Eden existed. The Tigris and Euphrates which still flow today and the Pishon and Gihon which no longer flow. The reason why the Tigris and Euphrates still flow is because they are receiving water from ice on Mount Ararat and snow melting from the mountains of Iran, Russia and Turkey.
All four great rivers existed during the last ice age in which we get an ice age every 100,000 years that lasts for 90,000 years. We have had an ice ages for the past 800,000 years. When there is an ice age a large amount of the earth's water is frozen thick covering the continents. This means that the ocean levels would be lower and those four rivers would then be above sea level. For all of them to come together can only happen during an ice age. They would come together on dry land namely in the south eastern portion of the Persian Gulf.
Today, the Tigris and Euphrates rivers meet near the south-east part of the Persian Gulf. To the left is a map of all 4 river locations. The Pishon and Gihon locations are based on the dried up river beds that can still be visited today.
Eden is where sin was committed and addressed. At the beginning of the Bible in Genesis 2:7-10 when Adam is created, he lives in paradise in the Garden of Eden where the fall of man transpires (sin). In the Second Creation paradise is restored with a new earth and the curse of sin will be abolished forever. Our sin was paid in full by Christ on the the cross, but no action was taken. God has delayed this action for 2,000+ years so He could redeem more people. In the Second Creation we only see the tree of life, the tree of the knowledge of good and evil is absent. As man is restored by God, so is His paradise called Eden.
The reason why God banished Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden is because He could not allow them to also eat from the Tree of Life too because if man did, he would have lived forever in a fallen state and nothing would have been as horrible than that. In order for man to be freed from the nature of sin that replaced the spiritual nature we were originally created with, man must die. We cannot be delivered from our sin nature unless we die or if we are transformed in the rapture.
"Little Strokes, Fell great oaks."
― Benjamin Franklin
Statesman, Author, and Inventor (17 Jan 1706-1790)
"Behold, I will stand before you there on the rock at Horeb; and you shall strike the rock, and water will come out of it, so that the people may drink.” And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel."
There is a new accommodationist view and doctrine that’s being promoted in evangelical circles adopted by some conservative theologians claiming that the Holy Spirit partnered with the authors of the Bible, but didn’t try to correct their mistaken scientific and historical ideas. They claim there are errors in the Bible, but they are not from the Holy Spirit. It’s that the Holy Spirit is accommodating for the mistaken beliefs of the human authors. They also claim that they believe in Biblical inerrancy or what the Holy Spirit inspires is inerrant, but not what is accommodated.
We believe that this flawed doctrine sets the way for the forming of a theological priesthood. In other words we would need these expert theologians to tell us what parts of the Bible we can trust and what parts we can't trust. Our view is that these experts are trying to accommodate naturalistic evolution.